Archives: Vocabulary

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New Zealand is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses ‒ that of the North and South Islands ‒ and numerous smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 1,500 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island nations of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga. Because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans.

The Highlands are a historic region of Scotland. The area is sometimes referred to as the “Scottish Highlands. ” It was culturally distinguishable from the Lowlands from the later Middle Ages into the modern period, when Lowland Scots replaced Scottish Gaelic throughout most of the Lowlands. The term is also used for the area north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault, although the exact boundaries are not clearly defined, particularly to the east.

Canyoning is an excellent edition to any Stag party. | A bachelor party (Canada, South Africa and the United States), also known as a stag party, stag night or stag do (especially in Commonwealth countries, including Canada and Ireland), a bull’s party (South Africa), or a buck’s party or buck’s night (Australia), is a party held for a man shortly before he enters marriage, to celebrate his “last night of freedom” or merely to spend time with his male friends, who are often at his wedding party afterwards.

A lap dance is a type of sex work performed in some strip clubs in which a dancer performs an erotic dance either in immediate contact (contact dancing) with a seated patron or within a very short distance of a seated patron. The dancer may be nude, topless or scantily dressed, depending on the laws in the jurisdiction and the club’s policies. With full-contact lap dances, the stripper may engage in non-penetrative sexual contact with the patron, such as “grinding” her body against the patron. Lap dance or a striptease is often associated with a stag do.

A striptease is an erotic or exotic dance in which the performer gradually undresses, either partly or completely, in a seductive and sexually suggestive manner. The person who performs a striptease is commonly known as a “stripper” or exotic dancer. In Western countries, the venues where stripteases are performed on a regular basis are now usually called strip clubs, though they may be performed in venues such as public houses (especially in the UK), theaters and music halls.

“The Birks of Aberfeldy” is a song lyric written for a pre-existing melody in 1787 by Robert Burns. He was inspired to write it by the Falls of Moness and the birch trees of Aberfeldy during a tour of the Scottish Highlands with his friend William Nicol.

This page is about the Scottish town. For information about the dollar as currency, see Dollar. Dollar is a small town in Clackmannanshire, Scotland. It is one of the Hillfoots Villages, situated between the Ochil Hills range to the north and the River Devon to the south. Dollar is on the A91 road, which runs from Stirling to St Andrews. The town is around 3 miles east of Tillicoultry. The parish of Muckhart extends right up to the eastern edge of Dollar, despite Muckhart’s much smaller size.

The River Tay is the longest river in Scotland and the seventh-longest in the United Kingdom. The Tay originates in western Scotland on the slopes of Ben Lui (Beinn Laoigh), then flows easterly across the Highlands, through Loch Dochhart, Loch Iubhair and Loch Tay, then continues east through Strathtay, in the centre of Scotland, then southeasterly through Perth, where it becomes tidal, to its mouth at the Firth of Tay, south of Dundee. It is the largest river in the UK by volume of discharge. The river Tay is the most rafted river in Scotland, the river has numerous rapids

Camera

waterproof camera

Camera It is always good to have a camera in the canyon to not only record your experience for social media but to document the route taken, to highlight any unique features that you came across and to help build a report for those who will come after you. For a commercial trip, it is always good to give customers a snapshot or two of their adventure.

Head Torch

led-lenser-h14r-2-head-torch

Head Torch Even if it is beautiful well light and sunny above the canyon can be a dark place with corners of some canyons never seeing daylight directly. Make sure it is waterproof.

Dry Bags

dry bag canyoning

Dry Bags A waterproof dry bag is a great piece of kit for carrying anything that needs to stay dry, like your lunch, cameras, spare batteries, medication, first aid kit, mobile phone etc. They come in a variety of sizes and have back straps for easy carrying.

Phone

phone

Phone A mobile phone allows for communication in case of an emergency, just make sure that there is coverage from your chosen network provider in the general area of the canyon being explored.

Knife

canyoning knife

Knife Vital in an emergency, knives can be used and will be used in many situations in the canyon when canyoning. Make sure it is secure, accessible and sharp.

Canyons are wet and naturally slippy environments. There are a number of brands that now offer specific and specialised canyoning boots. The key thing to look for is soft rubber and ankle support.

helmet

canyoning helmet

A helmet That’s Suitable For Canyoning will be at the top of most canyoner’s lists.  With all those slippery rocks, big jumps and occasional abseils you’re going to need a helmet to protect your beautiful bonce while canyoning. A good quality rock climbing helmet will do here. The design should obviously be able to handle getting wet and if possible go for a low profile model with good visibility so that you can move through narrow spaces more easily.

descender

descender

An extremely important piece in the canyoneers toolkit, the descender allows the canyoneer to descend the rope safely when abseiling in the canyon. Like most technical climbing equipment there are many different styles. Descenders used in most industrial work applications should be outfitted with a self-braking mechanism that engages if the operator lets go of the device. This self-braking mechanism is integral to the device (e.g. Petzl Stop or I’D) or can be added by the user in form of a mechanical or rope prusik when using a rappel rack or figure 8. An independent back-up safety system should be

Whitewater

white water

Whitewater, usually spelled white water in both American and British English, is formed in a rapid, when a river’s gradient increases enough to disturb its laminar flow and create turbulence, i.e. form a bubbly, or aerated and unstable current; the frothy water appears white. The term is also used loosely to refer to less turbulent but still agitated flows. The term “whitewater” also has a broader meaning, applying to any river, canyon  or creek itself that has a significant number of rapids. Canyons can be filled with white water or have sections that have white water characteristics.

Italy

Italy

Italy Listen/ˈɪtəli/, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Southern Europe. To the north, it borders France, Switzerland, Austria, and Slovenia along the Alps. To the south, it consists of the entirety of the Italian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia–the two largest islands in the Mediterranean Sea–and many other smaller islands. Italy has spectacular canyons and canyoning locations – Canyoning is called torrentismo in italina.

The Yorkshire Dales (also known simply as The Dales) is an upland area of Northern England dissected by numerous valleys. The area lies within the county boundaries of historic Yorkshire, though it spans the ceremonial counties of North Yorkshire, West Yorkshire and Cumbria. Most of the area falls within the Yorkshire Dales National Park, created in 1954 and now one of the fifteen National parks of Britain, but the term also includes areas to the east of the National Park, notably Nidderdale.

The Lake District, also commonly known as The Lakes or (particularly as an adjective) Lakeland, is a mountainous region in North West England. A popular holiday destination, it is famous not only for its lakes, forests, and mountains (or fells), but also for its associations with the early nineteenth-century poetry and writings of William Wordsworth and the other Lake Poets. This is the heart of the English Canyoning scene.

Wales Listen/ˈweɪlz/ is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain, bordered by England to its east and the Atlantic Ocean and Irish Sea to its west. It had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456, and has a total area of 20,779 km . Wales has over 1,200 km of coastline, and is largely mountainous, with its highest peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon (Yr Wyddfa), its highest summit.   Wales has some of the best canyoning in the UK, due to its highly mountainous regions.

England

England

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west. The Irish Sea lies north west of England, whilst the Celtic Sea lies to the south west. The North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separate it from continental Europe. Most of England comprises the central and southern part of the island of Great Britain in the North Atlantic.   England has lots of Canyoning sites  mainly in the Yorkshire Dales and the Lake District.

Spain

Spain

Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain (Spanish: Reino de España), is a sovereign state and a state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Its mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar; to the north and north east by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the northwest and west by the Atlantic Ocean and Portugal. Spain has one of the largest concentrations of Canyoning sites in the World.  

Portugal

Portugal

Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country located in Southwestern Europe, on the Iberian Peninsula. It is the westernmost country of mainland Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west and south and by Spain to the north and east. Apart from continental Portugal, the Portuguese Republic holds sovereignty over the Atlantic archipelagos of Azores and Madeira, which are autonomous regions of Portugal. Portugal has some fantastic Canyoning sites across the whole spectrum of technical abilities.

Buoyancy aids are a specialist form of personal flotation device (PFD) used most commonly by kayakers, canoeists and dinghy sailors. They are designed as a flotation aid, rather than a life-saving device and have several key differences to other PFD’s and lifejackets. Regardless of the specification of buoyancy aids, it is important to remember that they do not provide (nor are they intended to) the same high level of protection as lifejackets. Therefore, they should not be used as a substitute for a life-jacket, particularly where children are concerned.[1] Canoeing and kayaking buoyancy aids are designed with mobility in mind.

Diving is the sport of jumping or falling into water from a platform or springboard, sometimes while performing acrobatics. Diving is an internationally-recognized sport that is part of the Olympic Games. In addition, unstructured and non-competitive diving is a recreational pastime. Diving is one of the most popular Olympic sports with spectators.

Scuba diving is a form of underwater diving in which a diver uses a scuba set to breathe underwater. Unlike earlier diving, which relied either on breath-hold or on air pumped from the surface, scuba divers carry their own source of breathing gas,, allowing them greater freedom of movement than with an air line. Both surface supplied and scuba diving allow divers to stay underwater significantly longer than with breath-holding techniques as used in free-diving.

Sailing

Sailing

Sailing is the propulsion of a vehicle and the control of its movement with large (usually fabric) foils called sails. By changing the rigging, rudder, and sometimes the keel or centreboard, a sailor manages the force of the wind on the sails in order to move the vessel relative to its surrounding medium and change its direction and speed.

Hiking

Hiking

Hiking is an outdoor activity which consists of walking in natural environments, often in mountainous or other scenic terrain. People often hike on hiking trails. It is such a popular activity that there are numerous worldwide. The health benefits of different types of hiking have been confirmed in studies. Some of the health benefits of hiking include, but are not limited to, losing excess weight, decreasing hypertension, and improving mental health. Hiking is a big part of Canyoning as Canyons are never close by major roads or pathways. They are almost always deep in the countryside. Hiking is required to

A climbing route is a path by which a climber reaches the top of a mountain, rock, canyon or ice wall. Routes can vary dramatically in difficulty and, once committed to that ascent, can be difficult to stop or return. Choice of route can be critically important. Guidebooks, if available, are helpful in providing detailed diagrams and photographs of routes. In the earliest days of hillwalking and mountaineering, climbers got to the top by whatever means got them there.

Ireland

Ireland

Ireland is an island to the north-west of continental Europe. It is the third-largest island in Europe and the twentieth-largest island on Earth. To its east is the larger island of Great Britain, from which it is separated by the Irish Sea. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers just under five-sixths of the island, and Northern Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom, which covers the remainder and is located in the north-east of the island.

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) and Britain, is a sovereign state located off the north-western coast of continental Europe. The country includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the UK that shares a land border with another state—the Republic of Ireland. The UK has some amazing canyoning sites.

Caving—also occasionally known as spelunking in the USA and Canada and potholing in the United Kingdom, Scotland and Ireland—is the recreational pastime of exploring wild cave systems. In contrast, speleology is the scientific study of caves and the cave environment.

Mountaineering or mountain climbing is the sport, hobby or profession of hiking, skiing, and climbing mountains. While mountaineering began as attempts to reach the highest point of unclimbed big mountains it has branched into specializations that address different aspects of the mountain and consists of three areas: rock-craft, snow-craft and skiing, depending on whether the route chosen is over rock, snow or ice. Skills developed via Rock-craft are transferable to the canyoning world. 

Windsurfing

Windsurfing

Windsurfing is a surface water sport that combines elements of surfing and sailing. It consists of a board usually 2 to 3 metres long, with a volume of about 60 to 250 liters, powered by wind on a sail. The rig is connected to the board by a free-rotating universal joint and consists of a mast, 2-sided boom and sail. The sail area generally ranges from 2.5 m to 12 m depending on the conditions, the skill of the sailor and the type of windsurfing being undertaken. Some credit S.

There are a large number of sports that involve water. The following is a short list of water sports with a relevance to canyoning. cave diving deep diving Free-diving ice diving Scuba Diving Kayaking Kiteboating Kitesurfing Rafting Stand up paddle surfing Wakeboarding Canyoning

Buoyancy

Buoyancy

In science, buoyancy is an upward force exerted by a fluid, that opposes the weight of an immersed object. In a column of fluid, pressure increases with depth as a result of the weight of the overlying fluid. Thus a column of fluid, or an object submerged in the fluid, experiences greater pressure at the bottom of the column than at the top. This difference in pressure results in a net force that tends to accelerate an object upwards. In canyoning, Buoyancy is provided by the Neoprene wet suite and sometimes by  Buoyancy Aid.

Surfing

Surfing

Surfing is a surface water sport in which the wave rider, referred to as a “surfer”, rides on the forward face of a wave, which is most often carrying the surfer towards shore. Waves suitable for surfing are primarily found in the ocean, but can also be found in lakes or in rivers in the form of a standing wave or tidal bore. However, modern day Surfing can also be done in man-made sources such as wave pools and boat wakes.

Wakeboarding is a surface water sport which involves riding a wakeboard over the surface of a body of water. It was developed from a combination of water skiing, snowboarding and surfing techniques. The rider is usually towed behind a motorboat, typically at speeds of 17-25 km/h (18-23 mph), depending on the board size, rider’s weight, type of tricks, and rider’s comfort speed.

Paintball is a sport developed in the 1980s in which players eliminate opponents from play by hitting them with dye-filled, breakable, oil and gelatin paintballs, or pellets, usually shot from a carbon dioxide or compressed air (Nitrogen) powered “paintball marker”. The game is regularly played at a sporting level with organized competition involving major tournaments, professional teams, and players.[2][3] Paintball technology is also used by military forces, law enforcement, para-military and security organizations to supplement military training, as well as playing a role in riot response, and non-lethal suppression of dangerous suspects. Games can be played on indoor or outdoor

Snowboarding is a winter sport that involves descending a slope that is covered with snow while standing on a board attached to a rider’s feet, using a special boot set onto a mounted binding. The development of snowboarding was inspired by skateboarding, sledding, surfing and skiing. It was developed in the United States in the 1960s and became a Winter Olympic Sport in 1998. In 2002 competitive snowboarders formed the World Snowboard Tour.

Rafting or white water rafting is the challenging recreational outdoor activity of using an inflatable raft to navigate a river or other bodies of water. This is usually done on white water or different degrees of rough water, in order to thrill and excite the raft passengers. The development of this activity as a leisure sport has become popular since the mid-1970s. It is considered an extreme sport, as it can be dangerous. Rafting and Canyoning are two activities that are often offered together as a package.

Mountain biking is the sport of riding bicycles off-road, often over rough terrain, using specially designed mountain bikes. Mountain bikes share similarities with other bikes, but incorporate features designed to enhance durability and performance in rough terrain. Mountain biking can generally be broken down into multiple categories: cross country (XC), trail riding, all mountain, downhill, freeride, slopestyle, dirt jumping and trials.

Skateboarding is an action sport which involves riding and performing tricks using a skateboard. Skateboarding can also be considered a recreational activity, an art form, a job, or a method of transportation. Skateboarding has been shaped and influenced by many skateboarders throughout the years. A 2002 report found that there were 18.5 million skateboarders in the world. 85% of skateboarders polled who had used a board in the last year were under the age of 18, and 74% were male.

The Swiss are citizens or natives of Switzerland. The demonym derives from the toponym of Schwyz and has been in widespread use to refer to the Old Swiss Confederacy since the 16th century.

Laso Schaller is a Brazilian–Swiss extreme athlete. He jumped the 192 feet at Cascata del Salto, Switzerland in 2015  

Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western Europe, where it is bordered by Germany to the north, France to the west, Italy to the south, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km . The nature of the Swiss Alps makes it the perfect playground for Canyoning, with some really spectacular canyons.

The combined action of a group, especially when effective and efficient. “my group has a good sense of teamwork”. Canyoning realises on Teamwork from navigating to abseiling, climbing to swimming, first aid and rescue to transportation. Canyoning whether commercial or recreational relies heavily on having a good team of adventurers.

` Extreme sports (also called action sports, aggro sports, and adventure sports) is a popular term for certain activities perceived as having a high level of inherent danger. These activities often involve speed, height, a high level of physical exertion, and highly specialized gear. The definition of an extreme sport is not exact and the origin of the term is unclear, but it gained popularity in the 1990s when it was picked up by marketing companies to promote the X Games.   Extreme Sports White Water Rafting, Canyoning, Paintball, Abseiling, Climbing, Combat, MMA, Ice climbing, Mountain biking, Wakeboarding, Surfing, WindSurfing,

Industry is the production of an economic good or service within an economy. Industry is often classified into three sectors: primary or extractive, secondary or manufacturing, and tertiary or services. Some authors add quaternary (knowledge) or even quinary (culture and research) sectors. Industries can be classified on the basis of raw materials, size and ownership and time. Raw Materials: Industries may be agriculture based, Marine based, Mineral based, Forest based….

A rope is a linear collection of plies, yarns or strands which are twisted or braided together in order to combine them into a larger and stronger form. Ropes have tensile strength and so can be used for dragging and lifting, but are far too flexible to provide compressive strength. As a result, they cannot be used for pushing or similar compressive applications. Rope is thicker and stronger than similarly constructed cord, line, string, and twine.

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world’s sixth-largest country by total area. Neighbouring countries include Indonesia, East Timor and Papua New Guinea to the north; the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and New Caledonia to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east.   Australia has many canyons and a strong canyoning scene.

Climbing is the activity of using one’s hands and feet (or indeed any other part of the body) to ascend a steep object. It is done both for recreation (to reach an inaccessible place, or for its own enjoyment) and professionally, as part of activities such as maintenance of a structure, or military operations. Climbing can be done in the outside world or inside via man-made structuers.   Climbing is often refereed to as an Extreme Sport.

Landscape comprises the visible features of an area of land, including the physical elements of landforms such as (ice-capped) mountains, hills, water bodies such as rivers, lakes, ponds and the sea, living elements of land cover including indigenous vegetation, human elements including different forms of land use, buildings and structures, and transitory elements such as lighting and weather conditions.

The Scottish people, or Scots, are a nation and ethnic group native to Scotland. Historically they emerged from an amalgamation of the Picts and Gaels, incorporating neighbouring Britons to the south as well as Germanic peoples such as the Anglo-Saxons and the Norse. Later the Normans also had some influence. In modern use, “Scottish people” or “Scots” is used to refer to anyone whose linguistic, cultural, family ancestral or genetic origins are from within Scotland.

Neoprene or polychloroprene is a family of synthetic rubbers that are produced by polymerization of chloroprene. Neoprene exhibits good chemical stability, and maintains flexibility over a wide temperature range. It is used in a wide variety of applications, such as laptop sleeves, orthopedic braces (wrist, knee, etc. ), electrical insulation, liquid and sheet applied elastomeric membranes or flashings, and automotive fan belts.   Neoprene is often used in Extreme Sports like Canyoning, Surfing, Wakeboarding, Rafting, and most all other water based extreme sports.

Europe is, by convention, one of the world’s seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally divided from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting the Black and Aegean Seas. Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, and the Black Sea and connected waterways to the southeast.

Saint-Tropez is a coastal town on the French Riviera, in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur region of southeastern France. Long popular with artists, the town attracted the international “jet set” in the 1960s, and remains known for its beaches and nightlife. The cobblestoned La Ponche quarter recalls its past as a fishing village, although yachts now outnumber fishing boats in the Vieux Port (Old Port).

Montpellier is a city in southern France, 10km inland from the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. The town’s stately Gothic Cathédrale Saint-Pierre, distinguished by conical towers, dates to 1364. The city’s Antigone district is a chic, modern development inspired by neoclassical motifs. Paintings from French and European Old Masters hang at the Musée Fabre.

La Ciotat is a town on France’s Mediterranean coast. At its southern tip, the Parc du Mugel botanical garden encompasses tropical plants, pebble beaches and play areas. The grand Musée Ciotaden, amid the cafes and bars of the regenerated Old Port area, features exhibitions on the town’s shipbuilding history and the invention of the game of pétanque. Just north is the Eden Theater, the world’s oldest operating cinema.

South East England is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It consists of Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, East Sussex, Hampshire, Isle of Wight, Kent, Oxfordshire, Surrey and West Sussex. As with the other regions of England, apart from Greater London, the South East has no elected government and few powers. The Labour Party’s proposals during the general election of 1997 to create elected regional governments were abandoned.

France

France

France, officially the French Republic, is a unitary semi-presidential republic located mostly in Western Europe, with several overseas regions and territories. Metropolitan France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. From its shape, it is often referred to in French as l’Hexagone. France is the largest country in Western Europe and the third-largest in Europe as a whole.   France has the most thriving Canyoning communities in the world.

Cannes is a city located in the French Riviera. It is a busy tourist destination and host of the annual Cannes Film Festival. It is a commune of France located in the Alpes-Maritimes department. The city is also famous for its luxury shops, restaurants, and hotels. On 3 November 2011 it played host to the G20 organisation of industrialised nations.

Nice is the fifth most populous city in France, after Paris, Marseille, Lyon and Toulouse. The urban area of Nice extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of about 1 million on an area of 721 km . Located on the south east coast of France on the Mediterranean Sea, Nice is the second-largest French city on the Mediterranean coast after Marseille.

The environment is everything around us. We live work and play within it.

Prusik/ˈprʌsɪk/ (PRUH-sik) is a friction hitch or knot used to attach a loop of cord around a rope, applied in climbing, canyoneering, mountaineering, caving, rope rescue, and by arborists. The term Prusik is a name for both the loops of cord and the hitch, and the verb is “to prusik”.

A wetsuit is a garment, usually made of foamed neoprene, which is worn by surfers, divers, windsurfers, canoeists, and others engaged in water sports, providing thermal insulation, abrasion resistance and buoyancy. The insulation properties depend on bubbles of gas enclosed within the material, which reduce its ability to conduct heat. The bubbles also give the wetsuit a low density, providing buoyancy in water. The sport of Canyoning has specialised wetsuits – these are generally have protective layers around the knees and bum for the extra wear and tear around these areas. The thickness of the neoprene changes depending on the canyon type,

Waterproof or water-resistant describes objects relatively unaffected by water or resisting the ingress of water under specified conditions. Such items may be used in wet environments or under water to specified depths. Waterproofing describes making an object waterproof or water-resistant. “Water resistant” and “waterproof” often refer to penetration of liquid water. Permeation of water vapor is reported as a water vapor transmission rate.

A first aid kit is a collection of supplies and equipment for use in giving first aid, and can put together for the purpose (by an individual or organization, for instance), or purchased complete. There is a wide variation in the contents of first aid kits based on the knowledge and experience of those putting it together, the differing first aid requirements of the area where it may be used, and variations in legislation or regulation in a given area.

A slot canyon is a narrow canyon, formed by the wear of water rushing through rock. A slot canyon is significantly deeper than it is wide. Some slot canyons can measure less than 1 metre across at the top but drop more than 30 metres to the floor of the canyon. Most slot canyons are formed in sandstone and limestone rock, although slot canyons in other rock types such as granite and basalt are possible. Even in sandstone and limestone, only a very small number of creeks will form slot canyons.

A sling or runner is an item of climbing equipment consisting of a tied or sewn loop of webbing. These can be wrapped around sections of rock, hitched to other pieces of equipment, or tied directly to a tensioned line using a Prusik style knot. They may be used as anchors, to extend an anchor to reduce rope drag, in anchor equalization, or to climb a rope.

Kernmantle rope is rope constructed with its interior core (the kern) protected with a woven exterior sheath (mantle) that is designed to optimize strength, durability, and flexibility. The core fibers provide the tensile strength of the rope, while the sheath protects the core from abrasion during use. The name is derived from German Kernmantel which means core jacket.

A climbing harness is a piece of equipment used in certain types of rock-climbing, abseiling or other activities requiring the use of ropes to provide access or safety (e.g. industrial rope access, working at heights, etc.). A harness is used to secure a person to a piece of rope or an anchor point. In its simplest form, a harness can be made from a length of rope or a nylon webbing tied round the waist.

A carabiner or karabiner is a metal loop with a sprung gate used to quickly and reversibly connect components in safety-critical systems. The word is a shortened form of “Karabinerhaken”, German for “spring hook for a carbine”.

Climbing protection is any of a variety of devices employed to reduce risk and protect others while climbing rock and ice. It includes such items as nylon webbing and metal nuts, cams, bolts, and pitons. Different forms of climbing draw on varying forms of protection and the systems that are created from its elements.

A wide range of equipment is used during rock climbing. The most popular types of climbing equipment are briefly described in this article. The article on protecting a climb describes equipment commonly used to protect a climber against the consequences of a fall. See also the Glossary of climbing terms for more equipment descriptions.

Dollar is a small town in Clackmannanshire, Scotland. It is one of the Hillfoots Villages, situated between the Ochil Hills range to the north and the River Devon to the south. Dollar is on the A91 road, which runs from Stirling to St Andrews

The Falls of Bruar are a series of waterfalls on the Bruar Water in Scotland, about 8 miles from Pitlochry in the council area of Perth and Kinross. This is a popular canyoning location.    

Over the centuries, thousands of visitors have been inspired by the natural beauty of the gorge. The Birks of Aberfeldy is a popular circular walk through wonderful mixed woodland on the outskirts of Aberfeldy The Falls of Moness tumble through the gorge and provide a dramatic centrepiece, especially impressive after heavy rainfall. Robert Burns visited in 1787 and was so inspired that he wrote the poem ‘The Birks of Aberfeldy‘. We run an excellent canyoning trip through the Moness gorge which runs through the Birks of Aberfeldy.

A Jumping platform is a naturally occurring or human-made surface for people to jump from. It is usually situated above sufficiently deep water, or above mats, a box-spring mattress, piles of empty cardboard boxes, or other soft landing surfaces, or they may be used together with other means of dampening the impact (such as for example, platforms for bungee jumping). Children often improvise platforms, either on a large scale (at abandoned quarries) or on a smaller scale (e.g.

Canyoning (known as canyoneering in the U.S. ) is traveling in canyons using a variety of techniques that may include other outdoor activities such as walking, scrambling, climbing, jumping, abseiling, and/or swimming.

Walking (also known as ambulation) is one of the main gaits of locomotion among legged animals, and is typically slower than running and other gaits. Walking is defined by an ‘inverted pendulum’ gait in which the body vaults over the stiff limb or limbs with each step. This applies regardless of the number of limbs – even arthropods with six, eight or more limbs. The word walk is descended from the Old English wealcan “to roll”.

Scotland

Scotland

Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the southwest. In addition to the mainland, Scotland is made up of more than 790 islands including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides.   Scotland has many fantastic canyoning spots including ACHARN CANYON ALVA CANYON BIRKS OF ABERFELDY BRUAR CANYON CALVINE CANYON DOLLAR CANYON

A canyon (occasionally spelled cañon) or gorge is a deep ravine between cliffs often carved from the landscape by a river. Rivers have a natural tendency to reach a baseline elevation, which is the same elevation as the body of water it will eventually drain into. This forms a canyon. Most canyons were formed by a process of long-time erosion from a plateau level. The cliffs form because harder rock strata that are resistant to erosion and weathering remain exposed on the valley walls. Canyoning takes place inside a canyon.

Adventure

Adventure

An adventure is an exciting or unusual experience; it may also be a bold, usually risky undertaking, with an uncertain outcome. Adventures may be activities with some potential for physical danger, such as skydiving, Canyoning, mountain climbing or participating in extreme sports. The term also broadly refers to any enterprise that is potentially fraught with physical, financial or psychological risk, such as a business venture, a love affair, or other major life undertakings.

Rock climbing is an activity in which participants climb up, down or across natural rock formations or artificial rock walls. The goal is to reach the summit of a formation or the endpoint of a pre-defined route without falling. Rock climbing competitions have objectives of completing the route in the quickest possible time or the farthest along an increasingly difficult route. Scrambling, another activity involving the scaling of hills and similar formations, is similar to rock climbing. Climbing is an integral part of Canyoning.

Abseiling

Abseiling

Abseiling also called rappelling, is the controlled descent down a rock face using a rope. Climbers use this technique when a cliff or slope is too steep and/or dangerous to descend without protection. Rope access technicians also use this as a method to access difficult to reach areas at height for various industrial applications like maintenance, construction, inspection and welding. Rescue teams are also known for using this method as a way to access injured or stranded victims.   Abseiling is used to navigate the steep descents associated with canyoning.

Canyoning.co.uk is the premier Canyoning website in the UK. Providing trips throughout the UK . The company is a part of Splash White Water Rafting and plans to expand its canyoning list into Europe (France, Spain, Portugal) Click on the main page to see our Canyons.

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